Technology Mapping Across Value Chain for Enhancing Global Competitiveness: An Overview from Select Sectors in India
The linkages among technology, trade and competitiveness are increasingly getting concretized due to infusion of forces of globalization and liberalization whereby firms from developing and developed countries are taking up aggressive initiatives aimed at exploiting global opportunities. It has become imperative for industries from developing countries like India to increase their local and global market share by enhancing their competitiveness. Enhancing competitiveness in a globalized context requires comprehensive actions covering many operational and managerial elements as well as excellent support from policy, institutional and infrastructure perspective. To sustain competitiveness firms have to improve the external links with the support of quality infrastructure and improve the effectiveness of internal operations through the use of required skills. Competitiveness could be measured in terms of productivity, market share or cost advantage. These would not only provide competitive advantages at the firm level but also at industrial cluster level and ultimately at the sector level as a whole. This paper attempts at mapping the technological capabilities and infrastructure in five selected sectors in India such as textiles, food processing, auto components, biotechnology, gems and jewelry sectors. Technology mapping helps in understanding the major gaps in the form of policy, institutional and infrastructural support for designing governmental support either in the form of upgrading of infrastructure, knowledge or technology across value chain. The elements of action identified are essentially integrative and it enables governments to prepare a roadmap in partnership with industry for enhancing competitiveness through a series of technology led measures such as upgrading manufacturing technology, networking for knowledge exchange, improving marketing reach, reducing cost through efficiency improvement, improving quality assurance systems, developing quality infrastructure, effective transitions to IPR regime, improving environmental performance and increasing usage of IT.
Keywords: Technology Mapping, Value Chain Analysis, Global Competitiveness, Developing Countries, India, Texiles, Food Processing, Auto Components, Biotechnology, Gems and Jewlery
Thilotham R. Kolanu
Consultant, Centre for Energy, Environment, Urban Governance & Infrastructure Development, Administrative Staff College of India